环境准备

机器类型操作系统主机地址部署规划
VMCentOS Linux release 7.8.2003 (Core)10.25.78.50Master
VMCentOS Linux release 7.8.2003 (Core)10.25.78.100Worker

部署步骤


注意: Master执行步骤1-10,Worker执行步骤1-8以及11。

步骤一:关闭防火墙

[root@localhost ~]# systemctl stop firewalld
[root@localhost ~]# systemctl status firewalld
● firewalld.service - firewalld - dynamic firewall daemon
   Loaded: loaded (/usr/lib/systemd/system/firewalld.service; enabled; vendor preset: enabled)
   Active: inactive (dead) since Tue 2020-09-29 12:46:30 CST; 25s ago
     Docs: man:firewalld(1)
  Process: 16368 ExecStart=/usr/sbin/firewalld --nofork --nopid $FIREWALLD_ARGS (code=exited, status=0/SUCCESS)
 Main PID: 16368 (code=exited, status=0/SUCCESS)

...

步骤二:关闭selinux

[root@localhost ~]# getenforce
Enforcing
[root@localhost ~]# /usr/sbin/sestatus -v
SELinux status:                 enabled
SELinuxfs mount:                /sys/fs/selinux
SELinux root directory:         /etc/selinux
Loaded policy name:             targeted
Current mode:                   enforcing
Mode from config file:          enforcing
Policy MLS status:              enabled
Policy deny_unknown status:     allowed
Max kernel policy version:      28

Process contexts:
Current context:                unconfined_u:unconfined_r:unconfined_t:s0-s0:c0.c1023
Init context:                   system_u:system_r:init_t:s0
/usr/sbin/sshd                  unconfined_u:unconfined_r:unconfined_t:s0-s0:c0.c1023

File contexts:
Controlling terminal:           unconfined_u:object_r:user_devpts_t:s0
/etc/passwd                     system_u:object_r:passwd_file_t:s0
/etc/shadow                     system_u:object_r:shadow_t:s0
/bin/bash                       system_u:object_r:shell_exec_t:s0
/bin/login                      system_u:object_r:login_exec_t:s0
/bin/sh                         system_u:object_r:bin_t:s0 -> system_u:object_r:shell_exec_t:s0
/sbin/agetty                    system_u:object_r:getty_exec_t:s0
/sbin/init                      system_u:object_r:bin_t:s0 -> system_u:object_r:init_exec_t:s0
/usr/sbin/sshd                  system_u:object_r:sshd_exec_t:s0

关闭 swap

此功能必须关闭!

临时关闭

[root@localhost ~]# swapoff -a
[root@localhost ~]# free
              total        used        free      shared  buff/cache   available
Mem:        8010580      332616     4431364       49956     3246600     7322028
Swap:             0           0           0

可以看到,执行free指令,显示swap这一项的各项指标都为0,代表已经关闭成功!

永久关闭(推荐)

[root@localhost ~]# vim /etc/fstab 
#
# /etc/fstab
# Created by anaconda on Mon Sep 28 04:19:44 2020
#
# Accessible filesystems, by reference, are maintained under '/dev/disk'
# See man pages fstab(5), findfs(8), mount(8) and/or blkid(8) for more info
#
/dev/mapper/centos-root /                       xfs     defaults        0 0
UUID=500a3a94-5192-4583-950e-9f0cd7af56d4 /boot                   xfs     defaults        0 0
# 将下面这一行注释掉
# /dev/mapper/centos-swap swap                    swap    defaults        0 0

步骤四:添加域名映射

(一)修改hosts文件

[root@localhost ~]# cat >> /etc/hosts << EOF
> 10.25.78.50  k8s-master
> 10.25.78.100 k8s-worker-1
> EOF
[root@localhost ~]# cat /etc/hosts
# 如果是工作节点,将"k8s-master"修改为"k8s-worker-1"
127.0.0.1   localhost localhost.localdomain localhost4 localhost4.localdomain4 k8s-master
::1         localhost localhost.localdomain localhost6 localhost6.localdomain6

10.25.78.50  k8s-master
10.25.78.100 k8s-worker-1

(二)修改hostname

Master节点:

[root@localhost ~]# hostnamectl set-hostname k8s-master
[root@localhost ~]# hostname
k8s-master

Worker节点:

[root@localhost ~]# hostnamectl set-hostname k8s-worker-1
[root@localhost ~]# hostname
k8s-worker-1

步骤五:修改iptables配置

需要将桥接的IPV4流量传递到iptables 的链。

[root@localhost ~]# cat > /etc/sysctl.d/k8s.conf << EOF
> net.bridge.bridge-nf-call-ip6tables = 1
> net.bridge.bridge-nf-call-iptables = 1
> EOF
[root@localhost ~]# cat /etc/sysctl.d/k8s.conf
net.bridge.bridge-nf-call-ip6tables = 1
net.bridge.bridge-nf-call-iptables = 1
[root@localhost ~]# sysctl --system
* Applying /usr/lib/sysctl.d/00-system.conf ...
net.bridge.bridge-nf-call-ip6tables = 0
net.bridge.bridge-nf-call-iptables = 0
net.bridge.bridge-nf-call-arptables = 0
* Applying /usr/lib/sysctl.d/10-default-yama-scope.conf ...
...

步骤六:安装Docker

(一)执行安装

# step 1: 安装必要的一些系统工具
[root@localhost ~]# sudo yum install -y yum-utils device-mapper-persistent-data lvm2
# Step 2: 添加软件源信息
[root@localhost ~]# sudo yum-config-manager --add-repo https://mirrors.aliyun.com/docker-ce/linux/centos/docker-ce.repo
# Step 3: 更新并安装Docker-CE
[root@localhost ~]# sudo yum makecache fast
[root@localhost ~]# sudo yum -y install docker-ce
# Step 4: 开启Docker服务
[root@localhost ~]# systemctl enable docker && systemctl start docker
[root@localhost ~]# docker version
Client: Docker Engine - Community
 Version:           19.03.13
 API version:       1.40
 Go version:        go1.13.15
 Git commit:        4484c46d9d
 Built:             Wed Sep 16 17:03:45 2020
 OS/Arch:           linux/amd64
 Experimental:      false

Server: Docker Engine - Community
 Engine:
  Version:          19.03.13
  API version:      1.40 (minimum version 1.12)
  Go version:       go1.13.15
  Git commit:       4484c46d9d
  Built:            Wed Sep 16 17:02:21 2020
  OS/Arch:          linux/amd64
  Experimental:     false
 containerd:
  Version:          1.3.7
  GitCommit:        8fba4e9a7d01810a393d5d25a3621dc101981175
 runc:
  Version:          1.0.0-rc10
  GitCommit:        dc9208a3303feef5b3839f4323d9beb36df0a9dd
 docker-init:
  Version:          0.18.0
  GitCommit:        fec3683

(二)修改配置

此时docker已经完成安装,但是K8s中有很多镜像都在国外,为了从国内镜像托管站点活得镜像加速支持,建议修改Docker的配置文件,增加Registry Mirror参数,将镜像配置写入到配置参数中去。

新建Docker配置文件

[root@localhost ~]# vim /etc/docker/daemon.json 

添加对应的配置信息

[root@localhost ~]# cat /etc/docker/daemon.json 
{
    "registry-mirrors": ["http://f1361db2.m.daocloud.io","https://fmyskxvt.mirror.aliyuncs.com","https://dockerhub.mirrors.nwafu.edu.cn","https://registry.docker-cn.com"],
    "exec-opts": ["native.cgroupdriver=systemd"]
}

重启Docker

[root@localhost ~]# systemctl daemon-relaod
[root@localhost ~]# systemctl restart docker

步骤七:添加阿里云yum源

[root@localhost ~]# cat > /etc/yum.repos.d/kubernetes.repo << EOF
[kubernetes]
name=Kubernetes
baseurl=https://mirrors.aliyun.com/kubernetes/yum/repos/kubernetes-el7-x86_64
enabled=1
gpgcheck=1
repo_gpgcheck=1
gpgkey=https://mirrors.aliyun.com/kubernetes/yum/doc/yum-key.gpg
https://mirrors.aliyun.com/kubernetes/yum/doc/rpm-package-key.gpg
EOF

步骤八:安装 Kubernetes

由于官网未开放同步方式, 可能会有索引gpg检查失败的情况, 这时请用 yum install -y --nogpgcheck kubelet kubeadm kubectl 安装

[root@localhost ~]# yum install -y kubelet kubeadm kubectl
[root@localhost ~]# systemctl enable kubelet

步骤九:部署Master节点

此时kubeadm已经进入GA阶段,其控制面初始化和加入节点步骤都支持大量的可定制内容,因此kubeadm还提供了配置文件功能用于负载定制。同时,kubeadm将配置文件以ConfigMap的形式保存与集群中,便于后续的查询和升级工作。kubeadm config子命令提供了对这一组功能的支持:

指令描述
kubeadm config upload from-file由配置文件上传到集群中生成ConfigMap。
kubeadm config upload from-flags由配置参数生成ConfigMap。
kubeadm config view查看当前集群中的配置值。
kubeadm config print init-defaults输出 kubeadm init默认参数文件的内容。
kubeadm config print join-defaults输出 kubeadm join默认参数文件的内容。
kubeadm config migrate在新旧版本之间进行配置转换。
kubeadm config images list列出所需的镜像列表。
kubnadm config images pull拉去镜像到本地。

(一)生成初始化配置文件

[root@localhost ~]# kubeadm config print init-defaults
[root@localhost ~]# ll
total 8
-rw-------. 1 root root 1285 Sep 28 04:22 anaconda-ks.cfg
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root  863 Sep 29 02:26 init-default.yaml

(二)修改初始化配置文件

[root@localhost ~]# cat init-default.yaml 
apiVersion: kubeadm.k8s.io/v1beta2
bootstrapTokens:
- groups:
  - system:bootstrappers:kubeadm:default-node-token
  token: abcdef.0123456789abcdef
  ttl: 24h0m0s
  usages:
  - signing
  - authentication
kind: InitConfiguration
localAPIEndpoint:
# 将此处修复为当前vm的IP地址
  advertiseAddress: 10.25.78.50
  bindPort: 6443
nodeRegistration:
  criSocket: /var/run/dockershim.sock
  name: k8s-master
  taints:
  - effect: NoSchedule
    key: node-role.kubernetes.io/master
---
apiServer:
  timeoutForControlPlane: 4m0s
apiVersion: kubeadm.k8s.io/v1beta2
certificatesDir: /etc/kubernetes/pki
clusterName: kubernetes
controllerManager: {}
dns:
  type: CoreDNS
etcd:
  local:
    dataDir: /var/lib/etcd
# 将此处修改为国内阿里云镜像仓库的地址
imageRepository: registry.aliyuncs.com/google_containers
kind: ClusterConfiguration
kubernetesVersion: v1.19.0
networking:
  dnsDomain: cluster.local
  serviceSubnet: 10.96.0.0/12
scheduler: {}

(三)执行初始化Master节点

建议至少2 cpu ,2G,非硬性要求,1cpu,1G也可以搭建起集群。但是:1个cpu的话初始化master的时候会报the number of available CPUs 1 is less than the required 2,部署插件或者pod时可能会报warning:FailedScheduling:Insufficient cpu, Insufficient memory

[root@localhost ~]# kubeadm init --config=init-default.yaml 
W0929 02:26:52.411295   19019 configset.go:348] WARNING: kubeadm cannot validate component configs for API groups [kubelet.config.k8s.io kubeproxy.config.k8s.io]
[init] Using Kubernetes version: v1.19.0
[preflight] Running pre-flight checks
[preflight] Pulling images required for setting up a Kubernetes cluster
[preflight] This might take a minute or two, depending on the speed of your internet connection
[preflight] You can also perform this action in beforehand using 'kubeadm config images pull'
[certs] Using certificateDir folder "/etc/kubernetes/pki"
[certs] Generating "ca" certificate and key
[certs] Generating "apiserver" certificate and key
[certs] apiserver serving cert is signed for DNS names [k8s-master kubernetes kubernetes.default kubernetes.default.svc kubernetes.default.svc.cluster.local] and IPs [10.96.0.1 10.25.78.50]
[certs] Generating "apiserver-kubelet-client" certificate and key
[certs] Generating "front-proxy-ca" certificate and key
[certs] Generating "front-proxy-client" certificate and key
[certs] Generating "etcd/ca" certificate and key
[certs] Generating "etcd/server" certificate and key
[certs] etcd/server serving cert is signed for DNS names [k8s-master localhost] and IPs [10.25.78.50 127.0.0.1 ::1]
[certs] Generating "etcd/peer" certificate and key
[certs] etcd/peer serving cert is signed for DNS names [k8s-master localhost] and IPs [10.25.78.50 127.0.0.1 ::1]
[certs] Generating "etcd/healthcheck-client" certificate and key
[certs] Generating "apiserver-etcd-client" certificate and key
[certs] Generating "sa" key and public key
[kubeconfig] Using kubeconfig folder "/etc/kubernetes"
[kubeconfig] Writing "admin.conf" kubeconfig file
[kubeconfig] Writing "kubelet.conf" kubeconfig file
[kubeconfig] Writing "controller-manager.conf" kubeconfig file
[kubeconfig] Writing "scheduler.conf" kubeconfig file
[kubelet-start] Writing kubelet environment file with flags to file "/var/lib/kubelet/kubeadm-flags.env"
[kubelet-start] Writing kubelet configuration to file "/var/lib/kubelet/config.yaml"
[kubelet-start] Starting the kubelet
[control-plane] Using manifest folder "/etc/kubernetes/manifests"
[control-plane] Creating static Pod manifest for "kube-apiserver"
[control-plane] Creating static Pod manifest for "kube-controller-manager"
[control-plane] Creating static Pod manifest for "kube-scheduler"
[etcd] Creating static Pod manifest for local etcd in "/etc/kubernetes/manifests"
[wait-control-plane] Waiting for the kubelet to boot up the control plane as static Pods from directory "/etc/kubernetes/manifests". This can take up to 4m0s
[apiclient] All control plane components are healthy after 13.501901 seconds
[upload-config] Storing the configuration used in ConfigMap "kubeadm-config" in the "kube-system" Namespace
[kubelet] Creating a ConfigMap "kubelet-config-1.19" in namespace kube-system with the configuration for the kubelets in the cluster
[upload-certs] Skipping phase. Please see --upload-certs
[mark-control-plane] Marking the node k8s-master as control-plane by adding the label "node-role.kubernetes.io/master=''"
[mark-control-plane] Marking the node k8s-master as control-plane by adding the taints [node-role.kubernetes.io/master:NoSchedule]
[bootstrap-token] Using token: abcdef.0123456789abcdef
[bootstrap-token] Configuring bootstrap tokens, cluster-info ConfigMap, RBAC Roles
[bootstrap-token] configured RBAC rules to allow Node Bootstrap tokens to get nodes
[bootstrap-token] configured RBAC rules to allow Node Bootstrap tokens to post CSRs in order for nodes to get long term certificate credentials
[bootstrap-token] configured RBAC rules to allow the csrapprover controller automatically approve CSRs from a Node Bootstrap Token
[bootstrap-token] configured RBAC rules to allow certificate rotation for all node client certificates in the cluster
[bootstrap-token] Creating the "cluster-info" ConfigMap in the "kube-public" namespace
[kubelet-finalize] Updating "/etc/kubernetes/kubelet.conf" to point to a rotatable kubelet client certificate and key
[addons] Applied essential addon: CoreDNS
[addons] Applied essential addon: kube-proxy

Your Kubernetes control-plane has initialized successfully!

To start using your cluster, you need to run the following as a regular user:

  mkdir -p $HOME/.kube
  sudo cp -i /etc/kubernetes/admin.conf $HOME/.kube/config
  sudo chown $(id -u):$(id -g) $HOME/.kube/config

You should now deploy a pod network to the cluster.
Run "kubectl apply -f [podnetwork].yaml" with one of the options listed at:
  https://kubernetes.io/docs/concepts/cluster-administration/addons/

Then you can join any number of worker nodes by running the following on each as root:

kubeadm join 10.25.78.50:6443 --token abcdef.0123456789abcdef \
    --discovery-token-ca-cert-hash sha256:7e6bded86e1fd37f7578942a0889f536e41a5eb22ff0b59753c42ad486adc933 

这里需要注意kubeadm init命令执行完成后的最后几行提示信息,其中包含了加入节点的指令(kubeadm join ...)以及所需的Token。

(四)执行后续操作

这里的操做都是执行完kubeadm init系统提示我们要做的动作,如上所示。

[root@localhost ~]# mkdir -p $HOME/.kube
[root@localhost ~]# sudo cp -i /etc/kubernetes/admin.conf $HOME/.kube/config
[root@localhost ~]# sudo chown $(id -u):$(id -g) $HOME/.kube/config

(五)验证安装

此时已经在Master上安装了Kubernetes,但是集群内部还没有可以使用的工作Node,而且缺乏对容器网络的配置,此时可以验证当前的系统层面的Pod和ConfigMap。

[root@localhost ~]# kubectl get pod -n kube-system
NAME                                 READY   STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE
coredns-6d56c8448f-fnrhj             0/1     Pending   0          21m
coredns-6d56c8448f-rdp7k             0/1     Pending   0          21m
etcd-k8s-master                      1/1     Running   0          21m
kube-apiserver-k8s-master            1/1     Running   0          21m
kube-controller-manager-k8s-master   1/1     Running   0          21m
kube-proxy-zjfct                     1/1     Running   0          21m
kube-scheduler-k8s-master            1/1     Running   0          21m
[root@localhost ~]# kubectl get cm -n kube-system
NAME                                 DATA   AGE
coredns                              1      25m
extension-apiserver-authentication   6      25m
kube-proxy                           2      25m
kubeadm-config                       2      25m
kubelet-config-1.19                  1      25m

可以看到在ConfigMap中生成了名为kubeadm-config的ConfigMap对象。

步骤十:安装网络插件

执行kubectl get node命令,会发现Kubernetes提示Master为NotReady状态,这是因为还没有安装CNI网络插件。

[root@localhost ~]# kubectl get node
NAME         STATUS     ROLES    AGE   VERSION
k8s-master   NotReady   master   27m   v1.19.2

接下来,我们根据kubeadm的提示安装CNI网路插件即可。对与CNI网络插件,可以由很多选择,请参考https://kubernetes.io/docs/setup/independent/create-cluster-kubeadm/#pod-network的详细说明。这里我们选择weave插件,执行下面一条命令即可一键完成安装。

[root@k8s-worker-1 ~]# kubectl apply -f "https://cloud.weave.works/k8s/net?k8s-version=$(kubelet version | base64 | tr -d '\n')"

步骤十一:部署Worker节点

[socde type="green"]前提: 此时已经将步骤1-8执行完成。[/scode]

(一)生成默认join-config初始化配置文件

[root@k8s-worker-1 ~]# kubeadm config print join-defaults > join-default.yaml
[root@k8s-worker-1 ~]# ll
total 8
-rw-------. 1 root root 1285 Sep 28 04:22 anaconda-ks.cfg
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root  863 Sep 29 02:26 join-default.yaml

(二)根据实际情况修改配置文件

[root@k8s-worker-1 ~]# cat join-default.yaml 
apiVersion: kubeadm.k8s.io/v1beta2
caCertPath: /etc/kubernetes/pki/ca.crt
discovery:
  bootstrapToken:
  # 将此处修改为Master节点的IP地址。
    apiServerEndpoint: 10.25.78.50:6443
    token: abcdef.0123456789abcdef
    unsafeSkipCAVerification: true
  timeout: 5m0s
  tlsBootstrapToken: abcdef.0123456789abcdef
kind: JoinConfiguration
nodeRegistration:
  criSocket: /var/run/dockershim.sock
  name: k8s-worker-1
  taints: null

(三)执行kubeadm join命令

[root@k8s-worker-1 ~]# kubeadm join --config=join-default.yaml
[preflight] Running pre-flight checks
[preflight] Reading configuration from the cluster...
[preflight] FYI: You can look at this config file with 'kubectl -n kube-system get cm kubeadm-config -oyaml'
[kubelet-start] Writing kubelet configuration to file "/var/lib/kubelet/config.yaml"
[kubelet-start] Writing kubelet environment file with flags to file "/var/lib/kubelet/kubeadm-flags.env"
[kubelet-start] Starting the kubelet
[kubelet-start] Waiting for the kubelet to perform the TLS Bootstrap...

This node has joined the cluster:
* Certificate signing request was sent to apiserver and a response was received.
* The Kubelet was informed of the new secure connection details.

Run 'kubectl get nodes' on the control-plane to see this node join the cluster.

出现以上结果说明已经成功将节点加入集群中。

步骤十二:验证Kubernetes集群是否安装完成

执行下面命令,验证Kubernetes集群相关的Pod是否都正常的创建并运行。

[root@localhost ~]# kubectl get pods --all-namespaces
NAMESPACE     NAME                                 READY   STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE
kube-system   coredns-6d56c8448f-fnrhj             1/1     Running   0          91m
kube-system   coredns-6d56c8448f-rdp7k             1/1     Running   0          91m
kube-system   etcd-k8s-master                      1/1     Running   0          19m
kube-system   kube-apiserver-k8s-master            1/1     Running   0          20m
kube-system   kube-controller-manager-k8s-master   1/1     Running   0          19m
kube-system   kube-proxy-qjpz9                     1/1     Running   0          16m
kube-system   kube-proxy-zjfct                     1/1     Running   0          91m
kube-system   kube-scheduler-k8s-master            1/1     Running   0          20m
kube-system   weave-net-4drlg                      2/2     Running   1          16m
kube-system   weave-net-p4ssv                      2/2     Running   0          24m

此时可以看到,所有的Pod都是运行良好的;但是如果出现状态错误的Pod,则可以执行kubectl --namespace=kube-system describe pod <Pod_name>来查看具体的错误原因,最为常见的错误就是镜像没有下载完成。
也可以查看下Kubernetes集群下当前节点的状态。

[root@localhost ~]# kubectl get nodes
NAME           STATUS   ROLES    AGE   VERSION
k8s-master     Ready    master   96m   v1.19.2
k8s-worker-1   Ready    <none>   22m   v1.19.2

至此,通过kubeadm工具就实现了快速搭建Kubernetes集群;如果安装失败则可以执行kubeadm reset进行重置,将主机恢复原状后再次进行安装。

问题解决


安装失败怎么办?

如果使用kubeadm init或者kubeadm join命令安装出现问题,解决问题后别忘记使用kubeadm reset来还原主机配置。

[root@localhost ~]# kubeadm reset
# 重置网络配置
[root@localhost ~]# rm -rf /etc/cni/net.d
# 重置iptables
[root@localhost ~]# iptables -F && iptables -t nat -F && iptables -t mangle -F && iptables -X
[root@localhost ~]# sysctl net.bridge.bridge-nf-call-iptables=1
# 手动执行以下命令来清除对应的残余网卡信息
[root@localhost ~]# sudo ip link del cni0
[root@localhost ~]# sudo ip link del flannel.1
# 删除 $HOME/.kube/config,清除当前的Kubernetes配置
[root@localhost ~]# rm -rf $HOME/.kube/config
最后修改:2020 年 10 月 12 日 10 : 22 PM
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